Empower Your Data Initiatives with These 14 Data Warehousing Tools and Resources

Today, there exist cloud-based data warehousing tools that are rapid, immensely scalable, and accessible through a pay-per-use model. In this article, we’ll delve into some of the most sought-after tools in the market, examining factors such as cost, scalability, security, performance, and user-friendliness.

Data warehousing enhances information accessibility, accelerates query-response rates, and enables businesses to glean deeper insights from vast datasets. In the past, companies had to allocate substantial resources to construct a data warehouse infrastructure. However, the emergence of cloud technology has substantially mitigated the costs associated with data warehousing for businesses.

Our five key takeaways about data warehousing tools are as follows:

  1. Data warehousing simplifies information access.
  2. Data integration techniques like ETL, ELT, and CDC are crucial in business data warehousing.
  3. Today’s cloud-based tools are faster and more affordable than ever, offering pay-as-you-go pricing models.
  4. The ideal data warehousing tool for your organization will align with your specific use cases, meeting data analysis and processing requirements.
  5. Business intelligence benefits from accessing profound insights from Big Data.

Here, we present our selection of top-tier data warehouse tools and their respective offerings.

14 Data Warehousing Tools

1. Amazon Redshift

Redshift is a cloud-based data warehousing tool of enterprise quality. This fully managed platform is perfect for high-speed data analytics because it can handle petabytes of data in a matter of seconds. With its support for automatic concurrent scaling, query processing resources are dynamically adjusted to match workload demands. Because of this automation, hundreds of concurrent queries can be executed without incurring operational overhead because manual intervention is no longer necessary. Redshift also gives you the freedom to change node types or scale your cluster, giving you more control over how well your data warehouse performs and how much it costs to run.

  • Features: Cloud-based infrastructure, automatic concurrency scaling, cluster scaling capabilities, optimized performance.
  • Scalability: Capable of processing petabytes of data, supports scaling of clusters and node types.
  • Security: Offers encryption, Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) integration, Identity and Access Management (IAM) roles, and fine-grained access controls.
  • Ease of use: Fully managed platform that is easy to set up and operate.

Amazon Redshift Pricing

There are different price tiers available for Amazon Redshift. Users are invoiced hourly for on-demand pricing, with an hourly beginning price of $0.25. On the other hand, the number of nodes in a cluster determines the overall cost. Redshift’s pause and resume functions can be used to reduce expenses in this tier.

The monthly cost of managed storage for Amazon Redshift is $0.024 per gigabyte of data. The cost varies according to location. It’s crucial to remember that backup storage costs are not included in this price.

2. Google BigQuery

BigQuery is a cost-effective data warehousing tool that comes with built-in machine learning capabilities. You can seamlessly integrate it with Cloud ML and TensorFlow to develop robust AI models. Additionally, BigQuery is capable of executing queries on petabytes of data within seconds, enabling real-time analytics.

BigQuery supports geospatial analytics, allowing users to analyze location-based data and uncover new business opportunities.

One of the primary advantages of BigQuery is its ability to separate computation and storage. This feature enables users to adjust memory and processing capacity to suit their company’s needs. By dividing these elements, users can effectively manage the cost, scalability, and availability of each resource.

  • Features: Cost-effective pricing, built-in machine learning capabilities, support for geospatial analytics.
  • Scalability: Separation of compute and storage resources, allowing for scalable processing and memory.
  • Security: Data encryption, IAM roles and permissions, audit logs for enhanced security.
  • Ease of use: Rapid queries on petabytes of data, simplified resource management for ease of use.

Google BigQuery Pricing

Google BigQuery utilizes separate pricing structures for storage and queries. Storage costs are categorized as active or long-term. Active storage refers to data that has been modified within the last 90 days, while long-term storage includes data stored in partitions that haven’t been modified for more than 90 days. The cost for active storage in Google BigQuery is $0.020 per GB per month, whereas long-term storage is priced at $0.010 per GB per month. The first 10 GB per month is free for both types of storage.

Querying in Google BigQuery operates under two pricing models: on-demand and flat-rate. For on-demand pricing, the cost is $5 per TB, with 1 TB free every month. Alternatively, flat-rate pricing is available on a monthly basis, billed at $10,000 per 500 slots. An annual contract is also an option, billed at $8,500 per 500 slots per month. BigQuery’s flat-rate pricing is particularly suitable for businesses dealing with large volumes of data who seek predictable data costs.

3. Microsoft Azure

Azure SQL Data Warehouse is a cloud-based relational database solution offered by Microsoft. It is designed to handle petabyte-scale data loading and processing, as well as support real-time reporting. The platform operates on a node-based system and utilizes a massively parallel processing (MPP) architecture, which optimizes queries for concurrent processing. This architecture enables users to extract and visualize business insights at a much faster rate.

The data warehouse is highly compatible with hundreds of Microsoft Azure resources, allowing users to leverage various tools and services. For example, users can utilize machine learning tools to build intelligent applications. Additionally, the platform supports the storage of different types of structured and unstructured data, sourced from diverse origins such as on-premise SQL databases and IoT devices.

  • Features: Cloud-based infrastructure, support for petabyte-scale data processing, real-time reporting capabilities.
  • Scalability: Node-based system, massively parallel processing architecture for concurrent query optimization.
  • Security: Integration with Azure Active Directory, data encryption features, threat detection mechanisms.
  • Ease of use: Seamless integration with Microsoft Azure resources, support for both structured and unstructured data types.

Microsoft Azure SQL Pricing

The pricing for serverless compute on Azure SQL Database begins at $0.52 per V-core per hour. Each V-core represents one hyper-thread. Serverless compute on Azure operates on Gen 5 logical CPUs.

As for storage costs in Azure, it amounts to $0.115 per GB per hour, with a minimum storage requirement of 5GB and a maximum of 4 TB. Additional charges for backup storage are billed at $0.20 per GB per month.

4. Snowflake

Snowflake enables the establishment of an enterprise-grade cloud data warehouse. This tool empowers users to analyze data sourced from a multitude of structured and unstructured sources. Its multi-cluster, shared architecture distinguishes storage from processing power, facilitating the scaling of CPU resources in response to user activities. This scalability not only enhances querying performance but also expedites the delivery of actionable insights.

Snowflake’s multi-tenant design enables real-time data sharing across your organization without the need to move any data.

  • Features: Enterprise-grade functionality, support for both unstructured and structured data, multi-cluster shared architecture.
  • Scalability: Separation of storage from processing power, dynamic scaling of CPU resources based on user activities.
  • Security: Advanced security controls, including data encryption and access controls.
  • Ease of use: Multi-tenant design facilitates real-time data sharing, simplified scaling, and resource management.

Snowflake Pricing

Unlike many other data warehousing tools that charge based on the volume of data processed, Snowflake employs per-second billing for its pricing structure. Compute costs are billed per second, with a minimum charge of 60 seconds. However, pricing varies depending on factors such as region, platform, and selected pricing tier. Users have the option to choose from Standard, Enterprise, Business Critical, and VPS tiers. The average compute cost for the Standard tier is $0.00056 per second, per credit, while the Enterprise tier incurs a compute cost of $0.0011 per second, per credit.

5. Amazon DynamoDB

DynamoDB is a scalable NoSQL, cloud-based database system designed for enterprises. It has the capability to scale querying capacity to handle up to 10 or even 20 trillion requests per day across petabytes of data. Additionally, DynamoDB utilizes key-value and document data management approaches to provide a flexible schema. This allows tables to automatically scale by adding new columns as per evolving requirements.

The database system also includes DynamoDB Accelerator (DAX), which is an in-memory cache. DAX significantly reduces the time required to read tabulated data from milliseconds to microseconds. As a result, it enables super-fast querying processes, supporting millions of requests per second.

  • Features: DynamoDB offers a scalable NoSQL database solution with support for key-value and document data management, as well as an in-memory cache.
  • Scalability: It can effortlessly handle trillions of requests per day and automatically scale tables to accommodate growing demands.
  • Security: DynamoDB provides encryption features, fine-grained access controls, and seamless integration with IAM (Identity and Access Management).
  • Ease of use: With its flexible schema design and high-performance querying capabilities, DynamoDB offers an intuitive user experience.

Amazon DynamoDB Pricing

Amazon DynamoDB offers a free tier that includes 25 GB of data storage and 2.5 million stream read requests. For storage and computing needs beyond the free tier, users can opt for either on-demand pricing or provisioned-capacity pricing.

On-demand pricing for Amazon DynamoDB is billed at $0.25 per million reads and $1.25 per million writes. Additionally, storage incurs a cost of $0.25 per GB of data.

Provisioned-capacity pricing is ideal for users with fluctuating traffic levels. It enables automatic scaling of demand, resulting in potential savings on compute costs. This model features flexible pricing per hour based on provisioned reads and writes. The compute cost of Amazon DynamoDB increases as demand rises. Data storage costs remain fixed at $0.25 per GB.

6. Teradata

Teradata is a cloud-based data warehousing platform designed for aggregating and analyzing extensive volumes of enterprise data. The tool features a highly efficient parallel querying infrastructure, enabling rapid access to actionable insights. Teradata’s QueryGrid offers sophisticated engineering by deploying multiple analytic engines, ensuring optimal performance for various tasks.

Additionally, Teradata utilizes intelligent in-memory processing to enhance database performance without incurring additional costs. Through SQL integration, the data warehouse seamlessly connects with both commercial and open-source analytical tools.

  • Features: Cloud-based, high-speed parallel querying, optimized performance.
  • Scalability: Flexible infrastructure, enhanced scalability.
  • Security: Advanced security protocols, seamless integration with analytical tools.
  • Ease of use: SQL-driven, interoperability with commercial and open-source analytical tools.

Teradata Pricing

Teradata operates on a pay-as-you-go model, although the company does not publicly disclose its pricing.

7. Micro Focus Vertica

Vertica is a cloud-based SQL data warehouse that can be accessed via AWS and Azure. Additionally, it can be set up in a hybrid environment or on-premises. To improve query performance, the tool makes use of Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) and columnar storage. The architecture of shared-nothing reduces conflict over shared resources.

Time series analysis, pattern matching, and machine learning are just a few of the integrated analytics features offered by Vertica. Standard programming interfaces, such as OLE DB are supported. The software also makes use of compression methods to maximize storage effectiveness.

  • Features: SQL data warehouse with columnar storage and MPP for faster query speed.
  • Scalability: Shared-nothing architecture enables scalability based on workload and requirements.
  • Security: Built-in analytics capabilities, support for standard programming interfaces, and compression for storage optimization.
  • Ease of use: Simple deployment options, compatibility with analytics and machine learning, and optimized performance.

Micro Focus Vertica Pricing

Micro Focus Vertica offers a free community tier that includes up to 1 TB of storage and three nodes. For paid cloud tiers, customers are billed on a per-hour basis. The pricing for computing on Vertica varies depending on the region and fulfillment option, such as a 64-bit Amazon Machine Image. Pricing starts at $2 per hour.

8. PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL is an open-source database management solution available in the cloud. SMEs and large enterprises alike can use the resource as their primary database. For example, you may use it to drive internet-scale business applications. To work with geospatial data, consider integrating PostgreSQL with the PostGIS extension. The integration will enable you to offer location-based business solutions.

The platform supports both SQL and JSON querying. And you can optimize database performance with features like Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC).

  • Features: Open-source platform, supports SQL and JSON querying capabilities.
  • Scalability: Capable of managing large volumes of data, supports scaling based on workload demands.
  • Security: Implements various security measures, including authentication and access controls.
  • Ease of use: Offers a flexible and powerful database solution for diverse use cases.

PostgreSQL Pricing

PostgreSQL is open-source software, available free of charge.

9. Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS)

Amazon RDS allows you to build a cost-effective cloud-based relational database. It supports six database engines, such as PostgreSQL and Amazon Aurora. Replication features enhance availability for operational tasks. For example, Read Replicas enable redirecting read traffic from the primary database to virtual copies, a useful option for high-traffic applications. Additionally, you can scale computing and memory capabilities on RDS to 32 vCPUs and 244 gigabytes of RAM.

  • Features: Cost-effective, compatibility with multiple database engines, replication.
  • Scalability: Ability to scale computing and memory capabilities.
  • Security: Includes encryption, IAM roles, and access controls.
  • Ease of use: Simple deployment, scaling, and management.

Amazon RDS Pricing

The pricing for Amazon RDS can vary depending on several factors, including the chosen database engine, region, deployment type (single or multiple), and whether it’s an on-demand or reserved instance billed hourly.

For instance, in the on-demand pricing tier, the compute cost for Amazon RDS for PostgreSQL is $4.27 per hour for one instance. However, in the reserved-instance tier, with a one-year contract, the cost drops to $2.73 per hour. Storage costs remain consistent across all database engines at $0.115 per GB per instance.


SAP HANA is a cloud-based resource equipped with in-memory caching capabilities. It facilitates high-speed, real-time transaction processing and enterprise-wide data analytics. Moreover, it offers a user-friendly, centralized interface for data access, integration, and virtualization.

Using data federation, you can query remote databases without the need to relocate your data. Supported data sources include Hadoop and SAP Adaptive Server Enterprise (SAP ASE). Additionally, SAP HANA provides support for text and predictive analytics, as well as intelligence-driven app development.

  • Highlighted Features: SAP HANA boasts in-memory caching, facilitating swift data retrieval, real-time transaction processing, and comprehensive enterprise-wide data analytics.
  • Scalability: Its architecture is designed to scale seamlessly, supporting federated querying for enhanced flexibility.
  • Security Measures: Data encryption, stringent access controls, and seamless integration with various security solutions ensure robust data protection.
  • User-Friendly Interface: With a centralized interface, SAP HANA simplifies data access, integration, and virtualization processes, enhancing overall usability.

SAP HANA Pricing

SAP does not provide pricing details for HANA.

11. Amazon Simple Storage Service S3

Amazon S3 is designed to meet the cloud storage requirements of both small and large enterprises at scale. This scalable, object-based service also facilitates big data analytics. Data is stored in “buckets,” with each bucket capable of holding up to 5 terabytes. Additionally, the platform provides various cost-effective storage class options. For instance, you can reduce costs by utilizing S3 Standard-IA for storing occasionally accessed data.

  • Features: Cloud storage that grows with your needs, empowers big data analytics. Scalability: Seamlessly expandable storage infrastructure.
  • Security: Ensures data protection with encryption and access controls, integrates smoothly with IAM.
  • Ease of use: Flexible and user-friendly storage solution adaptable to varying demands.

Amazon S3 Pricing

Different storage classes are available on Amazon S3, and each has a different price range. For the first 50 TB of data saved, the Standard storage class costs $0.023 per GB/month. The cost per GB goes down a little as data capacity grows.

12. MarkLogic

MarkLogic offers a NoSQL database system with robust querying capabilities and versatile application services. Its schema-agnostic platform allows you to ingest data in any form or type without prior transformation, thanks to its native support for predefined schemas. It accommodates various formats, including geospatial data, JSON, RDF, and large binary files like videos. With its built-in search engine, querying data becomes simplified after ingestion, allowing users to ask questions and receive answers immediately.

  • Features include a NoSQL database system, powerful querying tools, and flexible application services.
  • Scalability: Architecture that is scalable and can handle the ingestion of many data forms.
  • Security features include data encryption, access controls, and tool integration.
  • Simple to use: Schema-independent, with an integrated search engine for streamlined querying.

MarkLogic Pricing

MarkLogic offers pricing based on consumption with three tiers:

  • Low priority fixed tier: Compute cost is $0.074 per hour/MCU, while storage is billed at $0.10 per GB/month.
  • Standard on-demand: This tier allows users to scale their demand as needed. It costs $0.125 per hour/MCU for compute, with storage also billed at $0.10 per GB/month.
  • Standard Reserved: Users expecting consistent traffic can reserve compute capacity annually. The cost for computation is $0.071 per hour/MCU, with storage pricing remaining the same as the other tiers.

13. IBM Db2 Warehouse

For analytics and AI applications, IBM Db2 Warehouse offers a scalable, fully managed cloud data storage platform. With its integrated machine learning capabilities, you can train and utilize ML models directly within the ecosystem. Supported languages for machine learning development include Python and SQL.

Moreover, Db2 Warehouse provides an intuitive REST API and UI for effortless management of elastic scaling of storage and processing power. Leveraging its massively parallel processing (MPP) features, the platform enables lightning-fast concurrent querying for large datasets by harnessing multiple servers.

  • Features include integrated machine learning tools and fully managed, scalable cloud data storage.
  • Scalability: Optimized performance and elastic scaling of storage and processing power.
  • Security measures include data encryption, access restrictions, and security solution integration.
  • Usability: REST API or intuitive user interface, simplified resource management.

IBM Db2 Warehouse Pricing

Users of Db2 Warehouse can select from nine different pricing tiers. Flex One, the most basic tier, is suitable for businesses initiating data warehouse initiatives as it offers a single-partitioned instance. This tier incurs a compute cost of $0.68 per instance/hour.

14. MariaDB

MariaDB is an enterprise-grade database solution designed to support applications that interact with customers. It can also be utilized to create a columnar database for real-time analytics. Leveraging massive parallel processing (MPP), MariaDB eliminates the need to establish indexes before running SQL queries over hundreds of billions of records. Scalability is provided by MariaDB based on workload and business needs.

  • Features: MPP for query optimization, columnar database of enterprise quality.
  • Scalability: Workload-based scaling is supported by scalable infrastructure.
  • Security: Integration with security measures, access limits, and data encryption.
  • Simple to use: Optimized performance, supports applications that interact with customers.

MariaDB Pricing

The cost of MariaDB Cloud begins at $0.45 per hour for the Foundation tier. However, the company does not provide detailed information about its pricing mechanism.